Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Which one is şuctuating? hormones or emotions?

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2014; 24: Supplement S21-S22
Read: 639 Published: 18 February 2021

The lifetime prevalence of mood disorders in women is approximately twice that of men. The underlying causality of this gender difference is not well understood. There is increasing scientific attention to the modulation of the neuroendocrine system by şuctuating gonadal hormones. This presentation attempts to summarize our current state of knowledge on the role and potential relevance of estrogen and other sex steroids to psychiatric disorders specific to women from menarche to menopause as a general topic. Although genetic, psychosocial and environmental factors clearly contribute to an individual’s risk for depression and other mood disorders, substantial experimental data support an independent role for hormonal inşuences on the expression of mood symptoms. Estrogen is a potent neuromodulator and is known to alter the activities of multiple neurotransmitter systems including those involved in major depressive disorder. Unlike men, neurons throughout the female brain must be able to respond to the effects of rapid increases and decreases in estrogen levels that occur during the menstrual cycle. It is shown that ovarian hormones can alter synaptic plasticity in female rats and in further researches it is under-stood that neuronal function is şuid and dynamic and is programmed to respond to predictable changes in ovarian hormones during the reproductive period. The sudden appearance of higher levels of estrogen in puberty alters the sensitivity of the neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, the constant şux of estrogen and progesterone levels throughout the reproductive years, proceeds constant modification of the neurotransmitter systems. Premenstrual syndromes may be the result of an altered activity or sensitivity of certain neurotransmitter systems. Pregnancy and delivery produce dramatic changes in estrogen and progesterone levels as well as significant suppression along the HPA axis, possibly increasing vulnerability to depression. At menopause, estrogen levels decline while pituitary LH and FSH levels increase. The loss of modulating effects of estrogen and progesterone may underlie the development of perimenopausal mood disorders in vulnerable women. All these results suggest a certain relationship between hormones and mood disorders and in recent studies role of hormones in treatment of mood disorders is discussed. Further studies may present a better understanding and treatment options about reproductive hormones and mood disorders especially ‘reproductive depression. There are many studies about the relationship between hormonal şuctuations and mood disorders but there are few studies about the relationship between affective temperaments and reproductive cycles. Affective temperaments are known as antecedents of mood disorders so as mood disorders; affective temperaments may be awaited to have a concurrence of simultaneous şuctuations with hormones. Opening a preview to several projections of hormonal şuctuations to mood changes as well as projections of mood changes to hormonal şuctuations is aimed in the presentation. Affective temperaments, mood disorders and hormones are the subtopics and all will be discussed in the lightening of their interactions.

EISSN 2475-0581