Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology

For comprehensive information regarding the journal's policies on submission, peer-review, publication, and ethical standards, kindly visit the Policies page. Similarly, for detailed information about the journal, please visit the About page.

It is strongly advised to review the journal's policies before submitting any manuscripts to ensure compliance with the journal's guidelines.

If you would like to conduct an eligibility check before uploading your article to the journal, you can use the Pre-Submission Check tool. This tool helps you identify and correct any deficiencies in your article.

Manuscript Preparation
Manuscripts submitted for evaluation should be original and not previously presented or published in any electronic or print medium. If a manuscript was previously presented at a conference or meeting, authors should provide detailed information about the event, including the name, date, and location of the organization.

Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with ICMJE-Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (updated in May 2023). 

Authors are required to prepare manuscripts in accordance with the relevant guideline listed below:

●    Randomized research studies and clinical trials: CONSORT guidelines (for protocols, please see the SPIRIT guidance)
●    Observational original research studies: STROBE guidelines 
●    Studies on diagnostic accuracy: STARD guidelines
●    Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: PRISMA guidelines (for protocols, please see the PRISMA-P guidelines)
●    Experimental animal studies: ARRIVE guidelines and Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th edition
●    Nonrandomized evaluations of behavioral and public health interventions: TREND guidelines
●    Case report: the CARE case report guidelines
●    Genetic association studies: STREGA
●    Qualitative research: SRQR guidelines

To find the right guideline for your research, please complete the questionnaire by Equator Network here.

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology  encourages authors to follow the ‘Sex and Gender Equity in Research – SAGER – guidelines’ when preparing their manuscripts to promote the inclusion of sex and gender considerations in research. Before submission, authors can consult EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators to produce clear, concise and accurate manuscripts that are easy to understand and free of common errors and pitfalls.

The style of manuscripts should follow the AMA Manual of Style, 11th Edition.

Manuscripts can only be submitted through the journal’s online manuscript submission and evaluation system. Manuscripts submitted via any other medium and submissions by anyone other than one of the authors will not be evaluated.

In addition to the manuscript files, authors are required to submit the following during the initial submission:

· Copyright Agreement and Acknowledgement of Authorship Form, and
· ICMJE Disclosure Form  (should be filled in by all contributing authors) These forms are available for download at

Preparation of the Manuscript
Title page: A separate title page should be submitted with all submissions and this page should include:
●    The full title of the manuscript as well as a short title (running head) of no more than 50 characters,
●    Name(s), affiliations, highest academic degree(s), and ORCID IDs of the author(s),
●    Grant information and detailed information on the other sources of support,
●    Name, address, telephone (including the mobile phone number), and email address of the corresponding author,
●    Acknowledgment of the individuals who contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but who do not fulfill the authorship criteria.
●    If the author(s) is a member of the journal’s Editorial Board, this should be specified in the title page.

Abstract: An abstract should be submitted with all submissions except for Book Reviews and Letter to the Editors. The abstract of Research Articles should be structured with subheadings (Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusion). Please check Table 1 below for word count specifications.

Main Points: All submissions except letters to the editor should be accompanied by 3 to 5 “main points.” These main points should highlight the most important results of the study and emphasize the main message of the manuscript. The main points should be structured as a list and should be written in a clear and straightforward manner. Since the main points are intended for experts and specialists in the field, they should be written in plain language that is easy to understand. By including main points with the manuscript, authors can help ensure that the most important findings and messages of their study are conveyed clearly to the reader.

Categories of Articles
Original Articles: Original articles provide new information based on original research. The acceptance of original articles is typically based on the originality and importance of the research. The main text of an Original Article should be structured with subheadings, including Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, and Discussion. 

Limitations, drawbacks, and the shortcomings of original articles should be mentioned in the Discussion section before the conclusion paragraph.

Please check Table 1 for the limitations for Original Articles.

Clinical Trials 
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology adopts the ICMJE's clinical trial registration policy, which requires that clinical trials must be registered in a publicly accessible registry that is a primary register of the WHO International Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) or in By registering clinical trials in a publicly accessible registry, authors can help to promote transparency and accountability in their research.

Instructions for the clinical trials are listed below.

• Clinical trial registry is only required for the prospective research projects that study the relationship between a health-related intervention and an outcome by assigning people to different groups.
• To have their manuscript evaluated in the journal, authors should register their research to a public registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment.
• Based on most up to date ICMJE recommendations, Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology accepts public registries that include minimum acceptable 24-item trial registration dataset.
• Authors are required to state a data sharing plan for the clinical trial registration. Please see details under the “Data Sharing” section.
• For further details, please check ICMJE Clinical Trial Policy and COPE Data and Reproducibility guidelines.

Meta-analysis is a statistical method used to combine and analyze data from multiple studies on a particular research question or topic. It involves a systematic review of published studies, identifying relevant data, and quantitative analysis to determine the overall effect size or relationship between variables across the studies.

By combining data from multiple studies, researchers can increase the statistical power and generalize the findings more confidently.

The process of meta-analysis involves several steps, including identifying the research question, selecting studies for inclusion, extracting relevant data from each study, and synthesizing the results. The synthesis typically involves statistical methods such as weighted averaging, effect size calculation, and hypothesis testing.
Authors of reports of meta-analyses of clinical trials should submit the PRISMA flow diagram and checklist. Authors of meta-analyses of observational studies should submit the MOOSE checklist. Follow EQUATOR Reporting Guidelines.

Cohort study
A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals with a common characteristic or exposure is followed over time to investigate the development of a specific outcome or disease. The group of individuals is called a cohort and is usually selected based on a particular risk factor or exposure.
In a cohort study, data is collected prospectively or retrospectively from the participants at different time intervals to determine the incidence of the outcome of interest. The study can be conducted with a single cohort or multiple cohorts that are followed over time.
Cohort studies are useful in identifying risk factors for diseases and determining the causal relationship between exposure and outcome. They can also be used to measure the incidence and prevalence of diseases in a population, evaluate the effectiveness of interventions, and develop and validate predictive models. Follow STROBE  Reporting Guidelines and Data Sharing Statement.

Case-control study
A case-control study is an observational study in which individuals with a particular outcome or disease (cases) are compared to individuals without the outcome or disease (controls) to determine if there are any differences in exposure to potential risk factors. The study design is retrospective, meaning data is collected on past exposures and outcomes. Follow STROBE  Reporting Guidelines and Data Sharing Statement.

In a case-control study, participants are selected based on whether they have the outcome of interest (cases) or not (controls). The researchers then collect data on both groups' past exposures and other characteristics and compare the frequency or amount of exposure between cases and controls.
Case-control studies are useful in investigating rare diseases or outcomes that may take a long time to develop, as well as identifying potential risk factors. They are also often used to test hypotheses generated from other types of studies, such as cohort studies.

Epidemiologic assessment
Epidemiological assessment is the process of systematically collecting, analyzing and interpreting data on the occurrence, distribution, and determinants of health and disease in populations. It is an important component of public health practice that helps identify patterns and trends in disease occurrence, identify risk factors and causes of disease, and develop strategies for disease prevention and control.

The process of epidemiological assessment typically involves several steps, including:
1. Defining the population of interest: This involves specifying the characteristics of the population being studied, such as age, gender, ethnicity, and geographic location.
2. Identifying the health outcome of interest: This involves defining the disease or health condition being studied and establishing criteria for case identification and diagnosis.
3. Collecting data: This involves gathering information on the occurrence of the health outcome and potential risk factors using various methods such as surveys, medical records, and laboratory tests.
4. Analyzing data: This involves summarizing and interpreting the data collected, using statistical methods to identify patterns and associations between risk factors and health outcomes.
5. Interpreting results: This involves drawing conclusions from the data analysis and communicating the findings to relevant stakeholders, such as public health officials, healthcare providers, and the general public.

Epidemiological assessment plays a critical role in public health decision-making as it provides evidence for developing effective interventions and policies to improve population health.

Cost-effectiveness analysis
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a type of economic evaluation that compares the costs of different interventions or programs to their effectiveness in achieving a particular health outcome. CEA aims to determine which intervention or program provides the greatest health benefit for the resources expended.

CEA involves estimating the costs and outcomes associated with different interventions or programs and comparing them using a common metric, such as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained or cost per life saved. The costs and outcomes are typically estimated using data from clinical trials, observational studies, and other sources.

CEA is often used in healthcare decision-making to inform resource allocation decisions, such as determining which medical treatments or preventive services to cover under a health insurance plan or which public health programs to fund. It is also used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions for non-health-related issues, such as environmental protection and transportation policy. Follow CHEERS  Reporting Guidelines and Data Sharing Statement.

Decision analysis
Decision analysis is a quantitative method used to evaluate complex decisions involving uncertainty, risk, and multiple outcomes. It involves breaking down a decision into its components and systematically analyzing the various options, outcomes, and probabilities associated with each choice.

The process of decision analysis typically involves several steps, including:

•    Defining the decision problem: This involves identifying the decision to be made, the stakeholders involved, and the goals and objectives of the decision.
•    Developing decision alternatives: This involves generating a range of possible options or strategies for addressing the decision problem.
•    Assessing the consequences: This involves identifying the possible outcomes or consequences associated with each decision alternative and estimating the probabilities of each outcome occurring.
•    Evaluating the preferences: This involves assessing the values or preferences of the stakeholders for each outcome and weighing the outcomes accordingly.
•    Making the decision: This involves selecting the option or strategy that provides the best balance between the expected outcomes and the stakeholders' preferences.

Decision analysis provides a structured approach to decision-making that allows for the incorporation of uncertainty and risk and can help to identify the best course of action given limited resources and competing priorities.

Reporting Statistical Analysis 
Statistical analysis to support conclusions is usually necessary. Statistical analyses must be conducted in accordance with international statistical reporting standards (Altman DG, Gore SM, Gardner MJ, Pocock SJ. Statistical guidelines for contributors to medical journals. Br Med J 1983: 7; 1489-93). Information on statistical analyses should be provided with a separate subheading under the Materials and Methods section and the statistical software that was used during the process must be specified.

When reporting statistical data in a research paper, it is important to present the values in a clear and consistent manner. P values, confidence intervals (CIs), and other statistical measures should be rounded appropriately and expressed according to the guidelines provided. For example, P values should be expressed to two digits to the right of the decimal point unless the first two digits are zeros, in which case three digits should be provided (e.g., instead of P < .01, report as P = .002). However, values close to .05 may be reported to three decimal places because .05 is an arbitrary cut-off point for statistical significance (e.g., P = .053). P values less than .001 should be designated as P < .001 rather than providing the exact value (e.g., P = .000006). 

Units should be prepared in accordance with the International System of Units (SI).

Systematic Review (without meta-analysis)
A systematic review is a type of research methodology that involves a comprehensive and rigorous search for all available evidence related to a particular research question or topic. The goal of a systematic review is to identify, appraise, and synthesize all relevant studies in order to provide a thorough and unbiased summary of the existing evidence.

Unlike a meta-analysis, a systematic review does not involve statistical pooling of data from multiple studies. Instead, it focuses on a qualitative synthesis of the findings of individual studies, including an assessment of their quality, consistency, and generalizability.

The process of conducting a systematic review typically involves several steps, including:

1.    Formulating the research question: This involves defining the research question or topic of interest, and specifying the inclusion and exclusion criteria for studies to be included in the review.
2.    Searching for studies: This involves conducting a comprehensive search of multiple databases and other sources to identify all relevant studies that meet the inclusion criteria.
3.    Screening and selecting studies: This involves screening the titles, abstracts, and full-text articles of identified studies to determine their relevance and eligibility for inclusion in the review.
4.    Extracting data and assessing study quality: This involves extracting data from the included studies, and assessing their quality and risk of bias using standardized tools.
5.    Synthesizing the findings: This involves summarizing and synthesizing the findings of the included studies, including an assessment of their quality, consistency, and generalizability.

A systematic review provides a comprehensive and rigorous summary of the available evidence on a particular research question or topic, and can help to inform policy and practice decisions. However, it is important to note that the quality and generalizability of the findings of a systematic review depend on the quality and consistency of the studies included in the review. Follow EQUTOR  Reporting Guidelines, a PRISMA-style  flow diagram should be included as an online supplement. Subtitle should be "Systematic Review".

Review Articles
Review articles that are written by authors with extensive knowledge and expertise in a particular field and a strong track record of publication are welcomed. These authors may even be invited to contribute a review article to the journal. Review articles should provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge on scientific subjects within the scope of the journal and should include discussions and evaluations of relevant research. The subheadings of the review articles can be planned by the authors. However, each review article should include an “Introduction” and a “Conclusion” section. Please check Table 1 for the limitations for Review Articles.

Case Reports
The journal has limited space for case reports and prioritizes publishing reports on rare cases or challenging conditions that provide new insights into diagnosis and treatment, offer novel therapies, or reveal knowledge not yet included in the literature. Interesting and educational case reports are also welcomed for publication. The text of a case report should include Introduction, Case Presentation, and Discussion sections. An unstructured abstract should also be included. Please check Table 1 for the limitations for Case Reports.

Case-based Reviews
Case-based reviews are reports on rare cases or conditions that constitute challenges in diagnosis and treatment. They should incorporate a short literature review of similar cases published in the literature, including a description of the search strategy and a summary table of the cases found. These manuscripts should provide insight into the diagnosis and treatment of these challenging cases and highlight the importance of considering rare conditions in clinical practice. Please check Table 1 for the limitations of Case-based Reviews.

Letters to the Editor
A "Letter to the Editor" is a type of manuscript that discusses important or overlooked aspects of a previously published article. This type of manuscript may also present articles on subjects within the scope of the journal that are of interest to readers, particularly educational cases. Readers can also use the "Letter to the Editor" format to share their comments on published manuscripts. The text of a "Letter to the Editor" should be unstructured and should not include an abstract, keywords, tables, figures, images, or other media. The manuscript that is being commented on must be properly cited within the "Letter to the Editor."

Editorial Comments
Invited editorial comments on selected articles are published in the journal to provide expert insight and critical analysis of the research presented. These comments are written by authors who have demonstrated expertise or a high reputation in the topic of the research article. The journal carefully selects and invites these authors to contribute their comments. The editorial comments should not exceed 1000 words in length and should not include an abstract, keywords, tables, figures, images, or other media.

Residents Corner Articles
"Resident Corner Articles" is a section of the Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology that is dedicated to publishing original articles written by residents in training. This section is published in every second issue of the journal. To be eligible to submit an article for this section, authors must provide official certification of their resident status and training level. This certification can be provided in the form of a letter on official institution letterhead, signed by the head of the department, and uploaded as an additional file with the manuscript. The total number of authors should not exceed 5, and the resident must be the first author. Authors should select "Resident Corner" as the article type during the submission process and include a cover letter with their manuscript. The manuscript must also adhere to the author instructions for original articles (see above).

Expert Opinion on Guidelines
"Expert Opinion on Guidelines" is a type of article that provides critical commentary and further discussion of guidelines in the related field. These articles should be written by senior researchers and clinicians with expertise in the relevant area. They may be invited by the journal or submit their manuscript for review by the Editor in Chief. These articles should be a maximum of 3000 words in length, excluding references, with an unstructured abstract. They should provide a detailed analysis of the guidelines and offer insights and recommendations for their implementation in clinical practice. Please refer to Table 1 for the limitations of "Expert Opinion on Guidelines."

Short Communications
Short Communications are brief, focused articles that present new scientific research or theories. These articles should be written in the same format as a full-length original research article, with sections for Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. The total length of the article should not exceed 2500 words, with a 150-word abstract and a maximum of 3 display items (figures/tables). Please refer to Table 1 for the limitations for “Short Communications.”

Brief Reports
Brief reports should present focused or highly innovative clinical research that is of interest to the journal's readership. They may also be appropriate for presenting research that builds upon previously published work, including additional controls and confirmatory results in different settings, as well as negative findings. The abstract should be structured and should not exceed 200 words, with subtitles that reflect the organization of the article. Please refer to Table 1 for the limitations for “Brief Reports.”

TABLE: Article Categories and Overview and Summary Rules to be Followed

Type of manuscript Word limit* Abstract word limit Reference limit Table limit Figure limit OTHERS
Original Investigation
Clinical trial
Cohort study
Case-control study
Epidemiologic assessment
Cost-effectiveness analysis
Decision analysis
4000 250
(Structured abstract)
50  6 5 or total of 10 images -EQUATOR Reporting Guidelines
-Data Sharing Statement
Review Article 5000 250 50-75 6 10 or total of 15 images -EQUATOR Reporting Guidelines
Systematic Review (without meta-analysis) 3000-5000 250
(Structured abstract)
75 10 10-15

-EQUATOR Reporting  Guidelines
-A PRISMA-style flow diagram should be included as an online supplement
- Subtitle should be "A Systematic Review"

Letter to the Editor 600 No abstract 6 2 No media -EQUATOR Reporting  Guidelines
-Data Sharing Statement
Brief Report 1200 (Structured abstract) 15 2 2 -EQUATOR Reporting  Guidelines
-Data Sharing Statement
Case Report 1500 350 15 No tables 4  
Case-based Review 2500 250 40 2 2  
Short Communications 2500 150 35 3 3 or total of 6 images  
Residents Corner Articles 3000 250 (Structured) 35 6 5 or total of 10 images  
Editorial Comments 1000 No abstract 5 No tables No media  
Expert Opinion on Guidelines 3000 250(Structured) 40 5 4  

*Word limit should not include the abstract, references, tables, and figure legends.

Tables should be included in the main document, after the reference list, and they should be numbered consecutively in the order they are referred to within the text. Each table should have a descriptive title placed above it, and any abbreviations used in the table should be defined below the table by footnotes (even if they are defined in the main text). Tables should be created using the "insert table" command of the Word processing software, and they should be arranged clearly to make the data easy to read and understand. The data presented in the tables should not be a repetition of the data presented in the main text, but should support and enhance the main text.

Figures and Figure Legends
Figures should be submitted as separate files in TIFF or JPEG format, and they should not be embedded in the Word document or the main manuscript file. If a figure has subunits, each subunit should be submitted as a separate file, and the subunits should not be merged into a single image. The figures should not be labeled (a, b, c, etc.) to indicate subunits. Instead, the figure legend should be used to describe the different parts of the figure. Thick and thin arrows, arrowheads, stars, asterisks, and similar marks can be used on the images to support figure legends. Images should be anonymized to remove any information that may identify individuals or institutions. The minimum resolution of each figure should be 600 DPI, and the figures should be clear and easy to read. Figure legends should be listed at the end of the main document. Figures should be referred to within the main text, and they should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned. 

All acronyms and abbreviations used in the manuscript should be defined at first use, both in the abstract and in the main text. The abbreviation should be provided in parentheses following the definition, and it should be used consistently throughout the paper.

Identifying products
When mentioning a drug, product, hardware, or software program in a manuscript, it is important to provide detailed information about the product in parentheses. This should include the name of the product, the producer of the product, and the city and country of the company. For example, if mentioning a Discovery St PET/CT scanner produced by General Electric in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, the information should be presented in the following format: "Discovery St PET/CT scanner (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA)." Providing this information helps to ensure that the product is properly identified and credited.

Supplementary Materials
Supplementary materials, including audio files, videos, datasets, and additional documents (e.g., appendices, additional figures, tables), are intended to complement the main text of the manuscript. These supplementary materials should be submitted as a separate section after the references list. Concise descriptions of each supplementary material should be included to explain their relevance to the manuscript. Page numbers are not required for supplementary materials.

Both in-text citations and the references must be prepared according to the AMA Manual of Style 11th Edition.

When citing publications, preference should be given to the latest, most up-to-date sources. Citing the latest sources can help to ensure that the paper is relevant and timely, and that it reflects the latest developments in the field.

It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure the accuracy of the references in their article. All sources must be properly cited, and the citations must be formatted correctly.

In the main text of the manuscript, references should be cited in superscript after punctuation. 

If an ahead-of-print publication is cited, the DOI number should be provided in the reference list.

Journal titles should be abbreviated in the reference list in accordance with the journal abbreviations in Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed. 

When there are six or fewer authors, all authors should be listed. If there are seven or more authors, the first three authors should be listed followed by “et al.” in the reference list. 

The reference styles for different types of publications are presented in the following examples.

Journal Article: Ammitzboll C, Andersen JB, Vils SR, et al. Isolation, behavioral changes, and low seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2022;74(11):1780-1785.

Book Section: Cohen EL. The multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary nature of health communication scholarship. In: Thompson TL, Harrington NG, eds. The Routledge Handbook of Health Communication. London: Routledge;2022:3-16.

Books with a Single Author: Haslwanter T. An Introduction to Statistics with Python. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer International Publishing; 2022.

Editor(s) as Author: Thompson TL, Harrington NG, eds. The Routledge Handbook of Health Communication. London: Routledge;2022.

Thesis: Chunga A. The Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota in Colonisation Resistance Against Common Enteric Pathogens in Malawian Children. Dissertation. University of Liverpool; 2022.

Websites:  International Society for Infectious Diseases. ProMed-mail. Accessed December 13, 2022. 

Epub Ahead of Print Articles: Torres X, Bennasar M, Bautista-Rodríguez C, et al. The heart after surviving twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Mar 26. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2022.03.049. [Epub ahead of print].

Production Processes

Language Editing
Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, the language editing service of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology is provided by AVES to ensure that it is clear and well-written. This process may involve correcting grammar, punctuation, and formatting errors, as well as making changes to improve the overall clarity and readability of the manuscript.

Proof Production
After the copy-editing process is complete, the manuscript is published online as an "ahead-of-print" publication, which means that it is available to readers before it is included in a scheduled issue of the journal. This allows readers to access the latest research as soon as it becomes available.

When the PDF of the article is generated, the corresponding author will receive an email with a link to our online proofing system. With that email, the author can make corrections to the article.

The corresponding author is asked to review the proof and approve it for publication within a specified time period, typically two days. 

Web-based proofing provides a faster and more accurate process by allowing you to type your corrections directly, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness, and correctness of the text, tables, and figures. Since the article is in the pre-publication process, significant changes will only be implemented with the editorial decision.

Statements or opinions expressed in the manuscripts published in Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology reflect the views of the author(s) and not the opinions of the editors, the editorial board, or the publisher; the editors, the editorial board, and the publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such materials. The final responsibility regarding the published content rests with the authors.

EISSN 2475-0581