Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Original Article

The Silent Cry of Healthcare Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study on Levels and Determinants of Burnout among Healthcare Workers after First Year of the Pandemic in Turkey


Department of Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, Bakırköy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, İstanbul, Turkey; Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey


Department of Psychiatry, Göztepe Prof. Dr. Süleyman Yalçın City Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2022; 32: 63-71
DOI: 10.5152/pcp.2022.21248
Read: 1562 Downloads: 139 Published: 01 March 2022

Background: Although the acute phase of the pandemic is over, healthcare workers continue to face challenges. The aim of this study was to determine burnout levels and possible related psychological processes such as psychological flexibility, moral injury, and values among healthcare workers after the first year of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using an online survey distributed through social networks. A sample of 124 front line healthcare workers working during the pandemic, between January and April 2021, were included in the study. Multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors of all 3 burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment).

Results: While 51.6% of healthcare workers experienced high levels of emotional exhaustion, 75.8% of them were found to have experienced high levels of lack of personal accomplishment. On the contrary, 81.5% of the participants reported low levels of depersonalization. Emotional exhaustion was predicted by total Depression Anxiety Stress Scale score (P = .004) and total Moral Injury Events Scale score was the only predictor of depersonalization (P=.051). Predictors of lack of personal accomplishment were the number of days worked in COVID-19 (P=.001), total Moral Injury Events Scale (P=0.004), Valuing Questionnaire (VQ)-Obstruction (P=.009), and total Depression Anxiety Stress Scale score (P=.002). On the other hand, psychological flexibility did not predict any sub-dimension of burnout.

Conclusion: Healthcare workers had high levels of burnout after 1 year with the pandemic. Our findings highlight the importance of factors such as moral injury, values, and emotional distress which need to be taken into consideration to develop future interventions to treat and prevent burnout in healthcare workers.

Cite this article as: Ulusoy S, Çelik Z. The silent cry of healthcare workers: A cross-sectional study on levels and determinants of burnout among healthcare workers after first year of the pandemic in Turkey. Psychiatr Clin Psychopharmacol. 2022;32(1):63-71.

EISSN 2475-0581