Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Original Article

Socioeconomic Factors Related to Prevalence, Severity, and Contact Coverage of Depression in Primary Health Care


Department of Public Health, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2021; 31: 457-467
DOI: 10.5152/pcp.2021.21051
Read: 175 Downloads: 39 Published: 22 December 2021

Background: We determine factors related to the prevalence, severity, and contact coverage of depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1059 individuals who applied to primary health care in Ankara before the onset of pandemic restrictions. Contact coverage was evaluated to include mental health care users.
Results: The prevalence of depression was 22.9%. Individuals who were unemployed (OR: 3.832; 95% CI: 2.053-7.151), women (OR: 1.646; 95% CI: 1.158-2.340), those without social support (OR: 1.933; 95% CI: 1.219-3.065), those who did not receive formal education (OR: 2.631; 95 % CI: 1.312-5.275), lower-income group (OR: 1.528; 95% CI: 1.071-2.180), and unmarried or divorced (OR: 2.644; 95% CI: 1.324-5.281) were found to be at risk of developing depression. Based on the linear regression model including patients diagnosed with depression, individuals who were unemployed (standardized β: 0.190), women (standardized β: 0.075), those without social support (standardized β: 0.096), and those who were unmarried or single (standardized β: 0.147) had the highest scale scores. Contact coverage for depression was 31.0%. Contact coverage was more likely in the upper-income group (OR: 2.239, 95% CI: 1.173-4.273).
Conclusion: Although depression is common among primary health care applicants, contact coverage is low. Developing screening programs for depression in primary health care may help improve community mental health. Socioeconomic factors that contribute to the emergence, severity, and contact coverage of depression indicate health inequalities. The development and severity of depression are mostly due to unemployment, which suggests the importance of employment-enhancing policies.
Cite this article as: Tüzün H, Demirköse H, Özkan S, İlhan MN. Socioeconomic factors related to prevalence, severity, and contact coverage of depression in primary health care. Psychiatr Clin Psychopharmacol. 2021;31(4):457-467.

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