Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Original Article

Reliability and Diagnostic Validity of A Novel Visual Disturbance Subjective Experience Scale in Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia


Wenzhou Seventh People’s Hospital, Department of Psychiatry and Neuroimaging Centre, Wenzhou


Zhengzhou University, The First Affiliated Hospital, Biological Psychiatry International Joint Laboratory of Henan and Zhengzhou University, Henan Psychiatric Transformation Research Key Laboratory, Zhengzhou


First Clinical Medical College of Shanxi Medical University, Department of Psychiatry and First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, MDT Center for Cognitive Impairment and Sleep Disorders, Taiyuan


Tianjin Anding Hospital, Department of Psychiatric-Neuroimaging-Genetics and Comorbidity Laboratory (PNGC_Lab), Tianjin


Jining Medical University, School of Mental Health, Department of Biological Psychiatry, Jining


The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Department of Pharmacology, Shijiazhuang, China

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2020; 30: 307-312
DOI: 10.5455/PCP.20200302022126
Read: 1675 Downloads: 565 Published: 20 January 2021

Background: Visual abnormalities are common among patients with schizophrenia and have been associated with retinal thickness impairment (RTI). A reliable tool for assessing altered visual experiences in this population is not yet available. The objective of this work was to establish a novel scale based on visual perception disturbance (VPD) items extracted from the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) and to examine the scale’s reliability and validity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: A total of 100 first-diagnosed, non-medicated patients with schizophrenia (FUSCH) and 100 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. The reliability of our BSABS-based visual perception subjective experience scale (VPSES), called the BSABS-VPSES, was assessed by calculating the inter-rater correlational coefficient for five psychiatrists’ patient evaluations. The discriminative validity of the BSABS-VPSES was determined by assessing the relationship between VPD symptom scores and RTI severity as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) performed by two ophthalmologists.

Results: The BSABS-VPSES provided reliable data (Cronbach’s α = 0.90), and BSABS-VPSES scores correlated with RTI magnitude (r = 0.88, 0.84, and 0.65, for mild-, moderate-, and severe-grade RTI groups, respectively; all p < 0.05), affirming the scale’s validity. Using the BSABS-VPSES, we found that 67% of FUSCH patients had VPD symptoms and that 52% of FUSCH patients had both VPD symptoms and an RTI.

Conclusions: The BSABS-VPSES scale provides reliable and valid results in Chinese FUSCH patients. This scale can be used to assess VPD symptom severity in people with schizophrenia and may contribute to future personalized treatment plans.

To cite this article: Huang J, Song X , Xu Y, Wang L, Li Y, Tian H, Zhang Y, Li G, Zhou C, Zhuo C, Yu H. Reliability and Diagnostic Validity of A Novel Visual Disturbance Subjective Experience Scale in Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2020;30(3):307-312

EISSN 2475-0581