Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Neurological deterioration of a patient with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia: case presentation

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2014; 24: Supplement S313-S313
Read: 677 Published: 17 February 2021

Research studies suggest that the left hemisphere was involved in the pathophysiology of dyslexia. Some study results showed significant abnormalities in five left hemisphere structures involving the extrapyramidal and limbic systems: amygdala, hippocampus proper, parahippocampal gyrus, putamen, and globus pallidus. The left hemisphere is thought to play a major role in the temporal analysis of information. Here we present a case of dyslexia with globus pallidus lesion. The patient was a 9 years old male, who was referred with complaints of “hyperactivity, attention deficits, learning disability, and poor academic degree ”. Past medical history was not any specific disease. The patient was born after a normal pregnancy and had a normal delivery. The patient was deprived of oxygen at birth. It was learned that he was receiving special education for 2 years. In mental status examination there was hyperactivity and severe attention deficit, verbal and non-verbal communication problems. Echolalia was observed in examination. Writing and reading ability was back by his age but answers to mental questions were appropriate to his age. of the patient history and mental status examination led us thought that the patient fulfilled criteria for Learning Disability (severe), ADHD (Current presentation Attention deficit) and Social Communication Disorder as per DSM-5 criteria. After 2 months, when the patient came to clinic, he was lethargic, tetraparesic and tetraplegic. The patient was fed through nasogastric intubation. In MRI, hyperintense signal changes were present in the both globus pallidus at T2 and FLAIR AG. Here we present a complex case of neurologic and mental regression, which also fulfilled criteria for Learning Disability (severe), ADHD (Current presentation attention deficit), and Social Communication Disorder as per DSM-5. Such cases illustrate the need of globus pallidus dysfunction in Learning Disability.

EISSN 2475-0581