Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Original Article

Lifetime post-traumatic stress disorders in female trauma victims in an outpatient sample from Turkey


Department of Psychiatry, Health Sciences University Bagcilar Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey


Department of Psychiatry, Cerkezkoy State Hospital, Tekirdag, Turkey


Bakirkoy Prof. Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Forensic Psychiatry Unit, Istanbul, Turkey


Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Center for Neurobehavioral Research on Addictions, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas, US Correspond

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2019; 29: 52-60
DOI: 10.1080/24750573.2018.1556910
Read: 815 Downloads: 526 Published: 04 February 2021

OBJECTIVE: In this present study, we aimed to examine the relationship between particular traumatic past experiences and clinical features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an outpatient sample from Turkey. Overt or unknown childhood traumas were also examined as a robust risk factor that might affect the development of PTSD in this population.

METHODS: The sample of this study was composed of 100 female patients with a history of traumatic experiences and with a documented psychiatric diagnosis except PTSD who were admitted to Health Sciences University’s Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital Outpatient Clinic. Semi-structured sociodemographic data form, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Disorder Scale (CAPS) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) were administered. Semi-structured sociodemographic form, were applied to the participants. Following clinical interviews and CAPS application, the patients were divided into two subgroups as patients with or without the diagnosis of current PTSD. Following screening of all variables for the accuracy of data entry, missing values, and homoscedasticity, statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS version 23 for Windows.

RESULTS: The CTQ total scores (U = 233.000, z = −6.856, p = 0.000) and also Emotional Abuse (U = 235.000, z = −6.941, p = 0.000), Physical Abuse (U = 185.000, z = −7.424, p = 0.000), Emotional Neglect (U = 244.000, z = −6.851, p = 0.000), Physical Neglect (U = 208.000, z = −7.276, p = 0.000) and Sexual Abuse (U = 266.000, z = −7.554 p = 0.000) subscale scores were significantly higher in the PTSD present group. A statistically significant association was found between CAPS Total scores and Emotional Abuse (r = 0.870, p < 0.01), Physical Abuse (r = 0.879, p < 0.01), Emotional Neglect (r = 0.862, p < 0.01), Physical Neglect (r = 0.884, p < 0.01) and Sexual Abuse (r = 0.886, p < 0.01) subscale scores, and CTQ Total (r = 0.906, p < 0.01) scores. The regression analysis has indicated that CTQ Sexual Abuse scores were significant predictors of CAPS Total scores (p = 0.00) in patients with traumatic experiences when age was controlled.

CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the sociodemographic risk factors, traumatic experiences of childhood are important risk factors for PTSD. Man-made traumas such as rape, assault have a higher risk and symptom severity than natural disasters and traffic accidents for PTSD. Our results suggested a strong association between childhood sexual trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder.

EISSN 2475-0581