Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Original Article

Functional Impairments and Related Factors in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder During the COVID-19 Normalization Stage

1.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Atatürk University Medicine Faculty, Erzurum, Turkey

2.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Erzurum Region Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2023; 33: 193-202
DOI: 10.5152/pcp.2023.23637
Read: 922 Downloads: 416 Published: 25 August 2023

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a disorder associated with significant functional impairments that can have important consequences for the individual and the society. Those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were reported to be more vulnerable in the face of difficulties and experience more psychological problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. It was shown that the psychological problems experienced during the pandemic could persist during the normalization stage. We aimed to assess functional impairment in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the related factors during the normalization stage which involved the initiation of fully face-to-face schooling practices.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=52) and a healthy control group (n=52). Functional impairment was assessed using the Weiss functional impairment rating scale self and parent forms. We also examined the factors associated with functional impairment (internalizing–externalizing problems, parenting strategies, and perceived expressed emotion).

Results: Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had higher functional impairment scores on Weiss functional impairment rating scale self and parent in all sub-domains and total. Weiss functional impairment rating scale self and parent total mean score had a positive correlation with negative parenting and externalizing–internalizing scores and a negative correlation with the positive parenting score. Weiss functional impairment rating scale–self total mean score was positively correlated with negative parenting and externalizing–internalizing scores and perceived expressed emotion scores.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the effects of the pandemic on children’s functioning may persist in the normalization stage. For a comprehensive evaluation and effective intervention, it is important that comorbid symptoms, parenting strategies, and the perceived family climate are evaluated from the perspectives of both the parent and the adolescent.

Cite this article as: Yıldırım Demirdöğen E, Akıncı MA, Bozkurt A, Çakır A, Tanrıverdi Ç. Functional impairments and related factors in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during the COVID-19 normalization stage. Psychiatry Clin Psychopharmacol. 2023;33(3):193-202.

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