Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Original Article

Exploring the Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on CoMorbid Sleep Disorders in Preschool Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


University Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Education, Johor, Malaysia


Department of Student Affairs, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China


Chongqing University of Education, School of Teacher Education, Chongqing, China

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2024; 34: 1-8
DOI: 10.5152/pcp.2024.23702
Read: 213 Downloads: 139 Published: 05 February 2024

Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurological developmental disorders in children, and sleep disorders (SDs) are a common comorbidity in children with ADHD. There are currently no pharmacological treatment options for SD in children with ADHD of preschool age (4-6 years). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel, noninvasive neuromodulation technique. This study explores the effectiveness of rTMS for comorbid SDs in preschool-aged children with ADHD.

Methods: Thirty-five children of preschool age with ADHD and comorbid SDs were recruited for this study. The children were divided into a parent behavior management training (PBMT) group (n=19) and a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with parent behavior management training group (n=16). Both groups underwent 8 weeks of treatment. The children's SD scores were assessed using the Chinese Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, were measured before the start, at the end, and 4 weeks after the end of the intervention, and were used to measure the effects. Within-group differences were compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance, and between-group differences were compared using an independent samples t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test.

Results: Both the PBMT group and the rTMS combined with PBMT group significantly improved the SDs of preschool-aged children with ADHD (P < .001), but the effect of the intervention was more pronounced in the rTMS combined with PBMT group (P < .001) and lasted longer than the PBMT group (P=.004).

Conclusion: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a promising non-pharmacological therapy to improve SD in preschool-aged children with ADHD.

Cite this article as: Yilin J, Heng Z, Fei Z, Jiayang L. Exploring the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on comorbid sleep disorders in preschool children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Clin Psychopharmacol. 2024;34(1):1-8.

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