Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Direct and Indirect Exposure to Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Poor Subjective Sleep Quality in Patients with Substance Use Disorder

1.

Brijder Addiction Treatment Clinic, Parnassia Group, Alkmaar, Netherlands

2.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

3.

Parnassia Addiction Research Centre (PARC), Parnassia Group, The Hague, Netherlands

4.

Brijder Addiction Treatment Clinic, Parnassia Group, The Hague, Netherlands

5.

Parnassia Group Academy, Parnassia Group, The Hague, Netherlands

6.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2022; 32: 188-195
DOI: 10.5152/pcp.2022.22368
Read: 338 Downloads: 44 Published: 01 September 2022

Background: Despite the frequent co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder, screening for trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms is not a routine practice in substance use disorder clinics. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and subjective sleep quality in substance use disorder inpatients after detoxification. In addition, we analyzed associations of sociodemographics, direct and indirect exposure to traumatic events, and sleep quality with posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.

Methods: Adults diagnosed with substance use disorder (n=188; 25% women, mean age 46.6 ± 12.3 years) from 2 inpatient addiction clinics were assessed at approximately 4 days post-admission for age, gender, educational level, self-reported substance use, trauma exposure, general and posttraumatic stress disorder-specific subjective sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity were identified with linear regression analyses.

Results: The prevalence of direct trauma exposure was high (89%), 51% of participants screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder and 87% reported clinically significant poor sleep quality. Younger age, female gender, direct and indirect exposure to more traumatic events, and poor subjective sleep quality were associated with more severe posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

Conclusion: Nearly all substance use disorder patients admitted for detoxification in our study had been directly or indirectly exposed to 1 or more traumatic events, and many reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and poor sleep quality. Younger and female substance use disorder patients were at higher risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Our results emphasize the need for systematic screening for direct and indirect trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and poor sleep quality in patients admitted for clinical substance use disorder treatment.

Cite this article as: ten Holt J, van Emmerik AAP, Blanken P. et al. Direct and indirect exposure to trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and poor subjective sleep quality in patients with substance use disorder. Psychiatry Clin Psychopharmacol. 2022;32(3):188-195.

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